Journal of Southern Religion

The Southern Rite of Human Sacrifice by Donald G. Mathews

Article Notes

Part I Notes: 

1. William Fitzbugh Brundage, Under Sentence of Death: Lynching in the South (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996); Joel R. Williamson, The Crucible of Race: Black While Relations in the American South since Emancipation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984); Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, Revolt Against Chivalry: Jessie Daniel Ames and the Women’s Campaign Against Lynching (New York: Columbia University Press, 1979).

2. See, for example: Leonard Dinnerstein, The Leo Frank Case (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1990), reprint of 1968 edition); Maury Louise Ellis, "Rain Down Fire’ The Lynching of Sam Hose" (Ph. D. diss., Florida State University Press, 1992); James R. McGovern, Anatomy of a Lynching: The Killing of Claude Neal (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982); Nancy MacLean, "The Leo Frank Case Reconsidered: Gender and Sexual Politics in the Making of Reactionary Populism," Journal of American History, 78(December 1991):917-48; Howard Smead, Blood Justice: The Lynching of Charles Mack Parker (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986); Stephen J. Whitfield, A Death in the Delta: The Story of Emmett Till (New York: Free Press, 1988); see also Charlotte Wolf, "Construction of a Lynching," Sociological Inquiry, 62 (Winter 1992):83-97. There are many other articles on specific lynchings; citations may be found in Brundage, ed., Under Sentence of Death.

3. See, for example: Robert P. Ingalls, Urban Vigilantes of the New South, 1882-1936 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1988); MacLean, "The Leo Frank Case Reconsidered: Gender and Populism," loc cit; Suzanne Marshall, Violence in the Black Patch of Kentucky and Tennessee (Columbia: university of Missouri Press, 1994); Christopher Waldrep, Night Riders: Defending Community in the Black patch, 1890-1915 (Durham: Duke University Press, 1993); George C. Wright, Racial Violence in Kentucky, 1864-1940: Lynchings, Mob Rule and ‘Legal Lynchings" (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990); the lists could fill a book, and they have; see Norton Moses, comp, Lynching and Vigilantism in the University States: An Annotated Bibliography (Greenwood Press, 1997).

4. Quoted in Trudier Harris, Exorcising Blackness: Historical and Literary Lynching and Burning Rituals (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984), p. 77 from Brooks, Selected Poems (New York: Harper and Row, 1963), pp. 87-99.

5. See the "cartoon" in Patricia A. Schecter, "Unsettled Business: Ida B. Wells against Lynching, or How Antilynching Got its Gender." in Brundage, Under Sentence of Death, 297. Golgotha of course refers to the place of the skull–there are seven skulls at the foot of a cross.

6. Brundage, "Introduction" to Under Sentence of Death, 6-7.

7. Ibid., pp. 7-10.

8. See Victor Turner, Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human Society (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 197: 23-59 on social dramas; see also Clifford Geertz, "Deep Play: Notes on a Balinese Cockfight" in Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays (New York: Basic books, 1973): 412-444.

9. Brundage, "Introduction" to Under Sentence of Death, 11-13. Buy see Ayers’ The Promise of the New South (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).

10. Stewart E. Tolnay and E. M. Beck, A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings, 1882-1930 (Urbana: University of Illinois, 1994): 255-7.

11. In Lynching in the New South, Brundage contrasts Virginia and Georgia. The latter was a high lynching state with a peculiar history of political violence that encouraged mobs to believe they could terrorize blacks with impunity. Virginia’s history and the political will of authorities were less amenable to the terror that characterized white supremacy in Georgia.

12. Nancy MacLean, "Gender, Sexuality, and the Politics of Lynching: The Leo Frank Case Revisited," in Brundage, Under Sentence of Death, 175.

13. Thomas G. Dyer, "A Most Unexampled Exhibition of Madness and Brutality: Judge Lynch in Saline County, Missouri" in Brundage, Under Sentence of Death, 100; Bruce E. Baker, "North Carolina Lynching Ballads", ibid, 239: Baker relies on Michel Foucault in discussing ritual not as a "static reflection of belief" but as reflecting "great rituals in which power is eclipsed and restored." He refers to lynching as a text; and the mutilated body also as a text that continues the "text" of lynching.

14. Patricia A. Schecter, "Unsettled Business: Ida B. Wells against Lynching, or, How Antilynching Got its Gender." In Brundage, Under Sentence of Death, p. 297. Golgotha of course refers to the place of the skull–there are seven skulls at the feet of a cross.

15. Arthur Raper, The Tragedy of Lynching (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1933): 6, 11, 15-18, 20-39, 53-4, 74-84, 119-24, 129-38, 145-71, 191-202, 211-32, 249-60, 281-301, 312-16, 347-55, 367-8, 378-83.

16. Ibid., 53, 167, 199, 200, 229, 314-15.

17. Ibid., 71.

18. Ibid., 53.

19. Borden Parker Bowne, the Boston and Methodist Personalist philosopher who was beginning to attract positive attention from Southern Methodists in the 1890s could easily have written the phrase Raper use. Raper’s father in law was a distinguished Southern Methodist minister. See for example Bowne, Personalism (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1909); for an example of the influence of Personalism on Methodist see Albert C. Knudson, The Philosophy of Personalism: A Study in the Metaphysics of Religion (New York: The Abingdon Press, 1927).

20. Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, Revolt Against Chivalry, 180.

21. See Clifford Geertz, "Deep Play: Notes on a Balinese Cockfight", in Geertz, Interpretation of Cultures, 412-444, especially pp. 420-1; for Hall’s application of these words to lynching see Hall, Revolt Against Chivalry, 131 and 306 note 61. The reference to "animality" in Geertz is to the cocks; in Hall it is to white men.

22. Williamson, Crucible of Race, 310-17.

23. Donald G. Mathews,  Religion in the Old South (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977).

24. Marshall, Violence in the Black Patch. But se Wright, Racial Violence in Kentucky, 1865-1940.

25. Ibid., 43 (32-43), 89-91, 99-100.

26. Christopher Waldrep, in an excellent and compelling study of the same area surveyed by Marshall, points out that the Black Patch was not distinguished by violence until the end of the nineteenth century. The decline of church discipline then may have had something to do with increased violence, he suggests, but is not sanguine about this correlation. Rather, he understands the violence within the context of modernization, economic stress, and changes in how community was experienced and defined. Waldrep shows how the strong religious tradition of the Black Patch sometimes affected ways in which meetings of the Planters Protective Association were conducted, and how men talked about their association and their enemy as well as them-selves in the process of resistance and opposition. See Waldrep, Night Riders, 15-17, 50-51, 67, and passim.

27. Ted Ownby’s discussion of how women domesticated men by regulating or taming their recreation ignores lynching because it was presumably not recreation. Intimidating behavior against blacks by whites that did not end in death or physical injury was frequently white recreation nonetheless, and of course nothing was done to stop it. The regulation of blacks through segregation, vagrancy, and work-related laws, and the tepid attempts to curtail lynching were part of the political culture that "regulated" white male behavior as Ownby describes it; the connection begs analysis. See Ted Ownby, Subduing Satan: Religion, Recreation and Manhood in the Rural South 1865-1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990).

28. Gregory A. Wills, Democratic Religion: Freedom, Authority, and Church Discipline in the Baptists South, 1785-1900 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992; Ownby, Subduing Satan, 194-212; Waldrep, Night Riders, p. 115.

29. W. Harrison Daniel, "The Effects of the Civil War on Southern Protestantism," Maryland Historical Magazine, 69(1974): 44-63.

30. See Edward Ayers, Promise of the New South, 498-500; Hunter Dickinson Farish, The Circuit Rider Dismounts: A Social History of Southern Methodism 1864-1900 (Richmond: The Dietz Press, 1938): 63-105; Paul Harvey, Redeeming the South: Religious Cultures and Racial Identities among Southern Baptists 1864-1925 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997): 24-31; Ernest Trice Thompson, Presbyterians in the South; Volume Three: 1890-1972 (Richmond: John Knox Press, 1973): 28-70; Ownby, Subduing Satan, 122-64.

31. The prohibition movements were ways of disciplining and controlling black men as well as white, and the racist expression of temperance campaigns implied the tactic of enlisting white "church people" in support of white supremacy; see Frederick A. Bode, Protestantism and the New south: North Carolina Baptists and Methodists in Political Crisis 1894-1903 (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1975). This conclusion was also suggested by conversations with Timothy Long. See comments in The (Raleigh, North Carolina) News and Observer, May 24, 1903; also Mrs. J. j. Ansley, History of the Georgia Women’s Christian Temperance Union from its Organization 1883 to 1904 (Columbus: Gilbert Printing Company, 1914); Paul Isaac, Prohibition and Politics: Turbulent Decades in Tennessee, 1885-1920 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1977); James Benson Sellers, The Prohibition Movement in Alabama 1702 to 1943 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1943); Daniel Jay Whitener, Prohibition in North Carolina 1715-1945 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1946).

32. A[mory] D[wight] Mayo, Southern Women in the Recent Educational Movement in the South, edited by Dan T. Carter and Amy Friedlander (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1978 [1892]): 59-70, 120-29, especially 121 and specifically also 150 and 160.

33. "Pattern" and "normality" can be contested of course. In the United States over the past generation, conflict over what is "normal" and which "patterns" are to be preferred suggests the volatility and dynamism of such issues. But since these conflicts are about what is to be valued ultimately, and what is to be considered "sacred", they take on the ambience of religious conflict. See Donald G. Mathews, "Spiritual Warfare’: Cultural Fundamentalism and the Equal Rights Amendment," Religion and American Culture, 3 (Summer 1993): 129-154; James Davidson Hunter, Culture Wars: The Struggle to Define America (New York: Basic Books, 1991). Another word for the phrase pervasive ambience of course is "culture". In discussing culture as a system of symbols, Clifford Geertz says that ‘sacred symbols function to synthesize a people’s ethos–the tone, character, and quality of their life, its moral and aesthetic style and mood–their world view–the picture they have of the way things in sheer actuality are, their most comprehensive ideas of order." See "Religion as a Cultural System" in Geertz, Interpretation of Cultures, p. 89.

34. Robert G. Hamerton-Kelly, Sacred Violence: Paul’s Hermeneutic of the Cross (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992):15. See also James G. Williams, The Bible, Violence and the Sacred: Liberation from the Myth of Sanctioned Violence (San Francisco: Harper San Francisco, 1991): 16-17.

35. Timothy Gorringe, God’s Just Vengeance: Crime, Violence, and the Rhetoric of Salvation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 54. See pp 53-57 for introductory discussion of Durkheim and punishment. Gorringe is critical of Durkheim’s theory of punishment here, as any student who has learned from Karl Marx would be, and cities David Garland, "Durkheim’s Theory of Punishment: A Critique," in Power to Punish, ed. David Garland and P. Young (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1992): 37-61.

36. Students may begin with Peter L. Berger, The Sacred Canopy: Elements of a Sociological Theory of Religion (New York: Doubleday & Company, 1969) and Thomas Luckman, The Invisible Religion (New York: 1967).

37. Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (Pelican Books: London, 1970 [originally published in London by Routledge & Kegan Paul in 1966]):40.

38. He also continues thus: that is, a "system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which [humans] communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about and attitudes toward life." See Geertz, "Religion as a cultural System" in Geertz, Interpretation of Cultures, p. 89.

39. Ibid., 90.

40. Ibid., 94.

41. John W. Cell, The Highest Stage of White Supremacy: The Origins of Segregation in Souther Africa and the American South (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982): 134; William Cohen, AT Freedom’s Edge: Black Mobility and the Southern White Quest for Racial Control 1861-1915 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991); C. Vann Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974).

42. Cohen, At Freedom’s Edge, 214-5.

43. Woodward, Strange Career of Jim Crow, 67-109; Ayers, Promise of the New South, 67-8, 12-7, 136-46, 429, 433-4.

44. Ayers, Promise of the New South, 52-4, 146-9, 269, 175-8, 289-90, 298-9, 304-9, 409-13.

45. Howard N. Rabinowitz, "More That the Woodward Thesis: Assessing The Strange Career of Jim Crow," Journal of American History, 75 (December, 1988): 842-56; C. Vann Woodward, "Strange Career Critics: Long May They Persevere," loc cit., p. 861.

46. Philip Alexander Bruce, "Evolution of the Negro Problem," Sewanee Review, 19 (October, 1911);: 385-99 reprinted as "In Defense of Southern Race Policies" in I. A. Newby, editor, The Development of Segregationist Thought (Homewood, IL: The Dorsey Press, 1968): 70-78.

47. Douglas, Purity and Danger, p. 145.

48. See Wilbur J. Cash, The Mind of the South (New York: Random House [Vintage Books], 1969 [Alfred Knopf, 1941]): 116-20; Hall, Revolt Against Chivalry, 112-129, 145-57; but see Diane Miller Sommerville’s study that places the "rape complex" of the post-Emancipation South in context by studying "The Rape Myth in the Old South Reconsidered," Journal of Southern History, 61 (August 1995): 481-518.

49. Wrestling with these issues was enabled by reading Douglas, Purity and Danger; but that she would approve of the way they have been addressed is not clear.

50. Douglas, Purity and Danger, 67.

51. Smith’s comment in "A Report from Lillian Smith on Kills of the Dream." An editorial in The Atlanta Constitution referred to Smith as "the ex-missionary who has made a profession of writing stuff that purposely sets out to debase the South, with a fury that continually overleaps itself." "Miss Smith," wrote Ralph McGill of the Constitution, is a prisoner in the monastery of her own mind." See Lillian Smith Papers 1283A, University of Georgia Library, Box 30. Even recent critics find her too absorbed in race to be a worthy critic of the South. See Fred Hobson, Tell About the South: The Southern Rage to Explain (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1983): 321: Because Smith focused on segregation, Hobson writes, she missed "much of what else the South was and had been."

52. Lillian Smith, Killers of the Dream (New York: W. W. Norton& Co., 1961 [1949]): 83.

53. Ibid., 88-90, 101, 224-52.

54. Smith to Paul Tillich November 17, 1959, letter quoted in Anne C. Loveland, Lillian Smith: A Southerner Confronting the South; a Biography (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1986): 172.

55. Loveland, Lillian Smith, 97-105; see also Fred Hobson’s evaluation in Tell about the South, 308-13.

56. Williamson, Crucible of Race, 285-323.

57. Joel Williamson in Crucible of Race puts the matter this way, page 308: "In their frustration white men projected their own worst thoughts upon black men, imagined them acted out in some specific incident, and symbolically killed those thoughts by lynching a hapless black man. Almost any vulnerable black man would do."

Part II Notes:

58. Thomas Dixon in The Leopard’s Spots describing a powerful, "old time preacher" as quoted by Williamson, Crucible of Race, 313.

59. Cash, Mind of the South, 58.

60. [Thomas Jefferson,] Jefferson’s Extracts from the Gospels: "The Philosophy of Jesus" and "The Life and Morals of Jesus," edited by Dickinson W. Adams [The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Second Series, edited by Charles T. Cullen] (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983).

61. William Walker, The Southern Harmony and Musical Companion (Philadelphia: E W Miller, 1847): p. 25.

62. Ibid., 26, 32, 45, 46, 55.

63. Ibid., 102.

64. Ibid., 85 and 63.

65. Edgar Young Mullins, The Christian Religion in its Doctrinal Expression (Nashville: Sunday School Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, 1917), p. 323. Mullins’ book was written a generation earlier and published over and over again as a guide to Southern Baptist ministers. For an overview of the atonement, see pp. 318-35.

66. Enoch M. Marvin, The Work of Christ; or The Atonement (St. Louis: Southwestern Book and Publishing Company, 1874), pp. 68, 87-89, 91. See also Mullins, Christian Religion, p. 333.

67. Thomas N. Ralston, Elements of Divinity, edited by Thomas O. Summers (Nashville: Cokesbury Press, 1924), p. 235. Ralston’s theology was based on a condensation of the works of English Wesleyan, Richard Watson; Ralston began to develop his theology before the Civil War and his book was still popular in the 1920s.

68. Robert Lewis Dabney, "Vindicatory Justice Essential to God" [Southern Pulpit, April, 1881] reprinted in C. R. Vaughn, editor, Discussions of Robert Lewis Dabney, D. D., Ll. D. (Richmond: Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 1890): I, 466.

69. E. Brooks Holifield, The Gentlemen Theologians: American Theology in Southern Culture, 1795-1860 (Durham: Duke University Press, 1977): 189-96.

70. Mullins, Christian Religion, p. 325; Ralston, Elements of Divinity, p. 203; Robert Lewis Dabney, Christ Our Penal Substitute (Richmond: Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 1898): 45-57, 62-3.

71. Dabney, "Vindicatory Justice Essential to God," loc cit., 466-7.

72. Mullins, Christian Religion, 318.

73. Dabney, "Vindicatory Justice Essential to God," loc cit., 466-81.

74. Ralston, Elements of Divinity, 201-29, 331, 335, 339ff.

75. For proof texts cited in support of the substitutionary atonement, see Dabney, Christ Our Penal Substitute, pp. 87-98: Leviticus 1:4, 14:21, 17:11, passim; John 1:29; Romans 5:6, 1 Corinthians 6:20, 15:3; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Hebrews 8:3, 9:11-14; 1 Timothy 2:6; 1 Peter 3:18, 2:24 among others.

76. One socialized within the alternative vision of liberal Christianity and educated by the masters of neo-orthodoxy almost instinctively senses the rage and violence of the orthodox myth; and the recent work of Rene Girard helps one understand the violence inherent in it. See especially: [Rene Girard,] The Girard Reader, edited by James G. Williams (New York Crossroads Publishing Co., 196): 9-29. See also Girard, Job: The Victim of His People (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987): 10-13, 34, 122-3, 140. For further interpretation, see Williams, Bible, Violence, and the Sacred, vii-1x, 1-20, 25-31.

77. Gustaf Aulen, Christus Victor: An Historical Study of the Three Main Types of the Idea of Atonement, edited by A. G. Hebert, (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1951), 22-26, 31-35, 43, 47-60, 66-80.

78. Gorringe, God’s Just Vengeance, 38-40, here quoting G. von Rad, Old Testament Theology, I, 271.

79. Ibid., 50-3, 57.

80. Ibid., 71-82. In addition, Gorringe finds in the Johannine literature the motif of victory and love that did not lead ineluctably to satisfaction theory. Aulen would probably think of Gorringe as an ally on this point.

81. Ibid., 99, but also 85-99.

82. Ibid., 99 and 101-3. Gorringe cites R. A. Duff, Trials and Punishments (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).

83. Ibid., 104-125.

84. Ibid., 139.

85. Dabney, Christ Our Penal Substitute, 32.

86. Ibid., 38, 64.

87. Dabney, "vindicatory Justice Essential to God, loc cit., 469-72. The emphasis is the author’s, but the necessity of punishment for sin was Dabney’s favorite moral stance.

88. Dabney. "The Christians’ Duty Towards His Enemies," in Vaughn, ed., Discussions of Robert Lewis Dabney, I, 706-21.

89. Dabney, Christ Our Penal Substitute, 15.

90. Dabney, "Vindicatory Justice Essential to God, loc cit., 469.

91. Gorringe, God’s Just Vengeance, 140.

92. That is, with respect to the atonement itself; many Wesleyans joined social gospel activists to insist that Justice required a change in social relations and institutions and that Christians should work to achieve such ends in Love. In a very real sense, the symbol of the cross came to represent the agony suffered by a Christ Who carried the burdens there of many who suffered as He did on their own crosses.

93. See, for example, the theology implicit in Albert J. Raboteau’s "The Blood of the Martyrs Is the Seed of the Faith," in Quinton Hosford Dixie and Cornel West, editors, The Courage to hope: From Black suffering to Human Redemption (Boston: Beacon Press, 1999): 22-39 and in the other essays published here in honor of the memory of James Melvin Washington; see also Riggins R. Early, Jr., Dark Symbols, Obscure Signs: God, Self & Community in the Slave Mind (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1993); and anything that Howard Thurman wrote, but especially Jesus and the Disinherited (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1949).

94. John Crowe Ransom, God Without Thunder: An Orthodox Defense of Orthodoxy (New York: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1930), pp. 1-25, 49-51.

95. The most recent study of the Scopes Trial is Edward J. Larson, Summer for the Gods: The Scopes Trial and American’s Continuing Debate over Science and Religion (New York: Basic books, 1997).

96. Ransom, God Without Thunder, 10-11.

Part III Notes:

97. Cash, Mind of the South, 116-20; Hall, Revolt Against Chivalry, 112, 129, 145-57.

98. Rene Girard, Things Hidden Since the Foundation of the World (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987), p. 226. The power of the sacred, writes Girard, page 42: "derives from what it has said in real terms to human beings concerning what must and must not be done in a given cultural context, in order to preserve tolerable human relations within the community. "The sacred is the sum of human assumptions resulting from collective transferences focused on a reconciliatory victim at the conclusion of a mimetic crisis. [A "mimetic crisis" refers to a moment when violence is about to break out.] Far from being a leap into the irrational, the sacred constitutes the only hypothesis that makes sense for human beings as long as these transferences retain their power."

99. Ibid., 177.

100. Ibid., 230-1.

101. Gorringe, God’s Just Vengeance, 46, referring to the insight of George Herbert Mead.

102. See for example Patricia S. Schecter, "Unsettled Business: Ida B. Wells Against Lynching, or How Antilynching Got its Gender" in Brundage, Under Sentence of Death, 297; see also Harris, Exorcising Blackness, 103, 126 and passim.

103. Walter White, Rope and Faggot: A Biography of Judge Lynch (New York: Arno Press and The New York Times, 1969, originally published in 1929): 40-53, especially 40-44, 48, 52.

104. Nancy McLean, "Gender, Sexuality, and the Politics of Lynching: The Leo Frank Case Revisited," in Brundage, Under Sentence of Death, 175; Williamson, Crucible of Race, 185-9. See also the comment in The [Atlanta] Constitution, April 24, 1899, 4: "The terrible expiation which Sam Hose was forced to pay..."

105. Girard, Violence and the Sacred (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977): 1.

106. Ibid.

107. Ayers, Promise of the New South, 156-8.

108. Girard, Violence and the Sacred, 14-18.

109. See The New York Times, January 5-8, 1997: much public discussion of both guilty verdicts and the inability of a jury to agree on a penalty for Terry Nichols, who was found guilty of manslaughter and conspiracy, included comments about "closure" and how the families of terrorist victims "felt" about various aspects of the judicial process. How the families "felt’ is irrelevant in a system presumably cleansed of vengeance and revenge.

110. Williams, ed., Girard Reader, 115 and 97-117.

111. Ibid., 116-7 and 211-21.

112. Ayers, Promise of the New South, 139-46, 156-7; Williamson, Crucible of Race, 138-33, 183-9, 289-90, 301-13.

113. Atticus G. Haygood, Our Brother in Black: His Freedom and His Future (New York: Philips & Hunt, 1881).

114. Harold Mann, Atticus Greene Haygood: Methodist Bishop, Editor, Educator (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1965); Louis D. Rubin, Jr., editor, Teach the Freeman: The Correspondence of Rutherford B. Hayes and the Slater Fund for the Negro (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959).

115. Brundage, Lynching in the New South, 195-7, 201-2; Ralph Luker, The Social Gospel in Black and White: American Racial Reform, 1885-1912 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991), 91, 100; Williamson, Crucible of Race, 287-91; also references to black men as rapists in discussing lynching in The [Nashville] Christian Advocate, October 15 and October 19, 1906; Wesleyan Christian Advocate, August 29, 1888 May 3 and May 10, 1899.

116. George Wright makes this point dramatically with regard to many incidents in his Racial Violence in Kentucky, 1865-1940. The title continues: Lynchings, Mob Rule and ‘Legal Lynchings’.

117. Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, "‘The Mind That Burns in Each Body’: Women, Rape, and Racial Violence," in Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality, edited by Ann Snitow, Christine Stansell, and Sharon Thompson (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1983): 328-49; Schecter, "Unsettled Business: Ida B. Wells against Lynching, or How Antilynching Got its Gender." In Brundage, Under Sentence of Death, pp. 292-317; Luker, Social Gospel in Black and White, 91-114; Hamerton-Kelly, Sacred Violence, p. 15.

118. See note 4 for full citation.

119. Harris, Exorcising Blackness, 1, 12, 17.

120. Ibid., 95 and 95-128.

121. Ibid., 195.

122. Quoted in ibid., 77 from Brooks, Selected Poems (New York: Harper and Row, 1963): 87-9.

123. Edwin Talliaferro Wellford, The Lynching of Jesus: A Review of the Legal Aspects of the Trial of Christ (Newport News: The Franklin Printing Company, 1905).

124. Ibid., 18-19.

125. Dabney, Christ Our Penal Substitute, 32.

126. Wellford, Lynching of Jesus, 88.

127. Ibid.., 89-91, 104. Wellford’s sensibility to the scapegoat mechanism is not so thorough as one would have liked, for there are anti-Semitic overtones to his discussion of the mob. It is clear, however, that he insists all victims of mob murder are in the same situation as the lynched Jesus Christ.

128. Hall, Revolt Against Chivalry, passim, especially chapters 3-8; hall, ‘The Mind That Burns in Each Body’ in Snitow et al, editors, Powers of Desire.

129. Brundage, Lynching in the New South, 19, 18-38.

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